Synthesis is the production of more complex substances from relatively simple substances plays an important role in chemistry. By tradition, chemical products obtained by combining or transforming molecules of the initial components are called synthetic, contrasting them with natural substances.
We say: synthetic rubber, synthetic fiber, synthetic detergentsand synthetic fuels. However, the methods of custom synthesis obtained not only naturally occurring substances, but also those that nature did not create. Synthesis is the basis of industrial chemistry is chemical technology. The tasks in this area are so diverse that chemists and technologists have long specialized in the synthesis of certain types of chemical products.
- The main organic synthesis as a sub-branch of the chemical industry covers the production of such large-tonnage organic products as alcohols, acids, esters, aldehydes, etc.
- In developing industrial methods for the synthesis of these compounds, chemists and technologists strive to improve the economic performance of technological processes, that is, to increase the yield of the reaction product, reduce the content of impurities in it, and find new, cheaper sources of raw materials.
- Experts in the field of petrochemical synthesis develop technological processes for obtaining various chemical products from crude oil.
- The production of synthetic polymers – plastics, chemical fibers, elastomers is widely developed. Most of them are unique in nature.
- Synthesis of artificial liquid fuels from carbon monoxide (II) and hydrogen or from methane is becoming increasingly important as oil becomes more expensive.
In nature, green plants from carbon dioxide, water, mineral salts and oxygen due to the energy of nitrogen-containing are purine bases, alkaloids of the cocaine group. These works were important for the development of organic chemistry and chemistry of natural compounds, as well as medicine and pharmacology. Currently, quinones are intermediate products in the synthesis of dyes. Compounds of the purine group are part of biologically active substances (nucleic acids, coenzymes); Cocaine alkaloids are used in medicine as the drugs of the sun’s rays through photosynthesis create the most complex organic compounds necessary for the life of both the plants and all other organisms. Until now, plant and animal raw materials remain the most valuable source of many substances used in the food industry, medicine, perfumery, etc. The shortage and high cost of these substances force us to develop methods for their chemical synthesis. First, each time it is necessary to establish the exact composition and structure of the molecules of these compounds using various methods of quantitative and qualitative analysis. And only after that you can start developing methods for their synthesis.
Along with chemical synthesis for the production of complex organic substances, enzymatic synthesis is used, in which natural catalysts are used – enzymes, and microbiological synthesis, in which microorganisms are used. Enzymatic synthesis successfully solved the problem of obtaining glucose from vegetable raw materials. Chemical synthesis of this compound is too complicated. Feed protein has proven to be economically advantageous to obtain from paraffin oil using microorganisms. There was a new industry at the junction of chemistry and biology is the microbiological industry.